Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Innocence and Experience free essay sample

Where obliviousness is rapture, ins indiscretion to be astute originates from one of Thomas Grays works. What Gray methods by this Is once in a while It Is smarter to not have the foggiest idea about certain things about existence, and this time Is the point at which you are as yet youthful. You are not mocked for being blameless on the grounds that everybody realizes that you don't have as much experience as grown-ups do. Thomas Gray misses this part of being a child, yet in addition realizes that it is essential to learn new things and to comprehend that the world isn't great. In Toni Cede Bamboos short story The Lesson, a gathering of poor African American young ladies re unconscious of how others live until they meet an African American lady named Miss Moore and she shows them an Important exercise. The young ladies see MISS Moore as Incredibly bizarre and diverse because of the way that she Is an African American, yet she has a goddamn professional education (96) and consistently seemed as though she was going to chapel (96). We will compose a custom paper test on Guiltlessness and Experience or on the other hand any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Miss Moore isn't care for most African American ladies during their time in their neighborhood. She generally looks adequate, talks great English, and is well educated.She was the main individual in their neighborhood to have n training, and for an African American lady to set off for college In their timespan was new. Since they live In destitution and they don't have guardians who have advanced educations, or even headed off to college, this makes Miss Moore the ideal individual to gaze upward to and try to be. So as to show the gathering of young ladies a thing or two, she takes them to the city, which is loaded up with a few white individuals wearing costly attire and even one woman in a fur garment, hot for what it's worth (97). Clearly this is most likely one of the principal times that these young ladies have seen white individuals. Their initial introduction to them is that they are insane. Before going into the store Sugar, Sylvia cousin, inquires as to whether they could take. Also, she was being not kidding. Once Inside of the toy store, the entirety of the young ladies are in stun at how costly everything is. Sylvia, the storyteller of the story, guarantees that a paperweight is overrated, But for $480 it dont bode well (98). At that point they discover a boat that costs $1,195 and Sylvia is perplexed and figures, that much cash should keep going forever (99). The young ladies go on about how that psyche of cash could take care of them and their families for quite a while. They don't comprehend why someone would purchase something that you will scarcely use for that much cash when you can purchase a lot of different Items that are essential and are utilized every day, for example, food and garments. The kids start to comprehend that the individuals who purchase these sorts of things have heaps of cash and so as to have that much cash, you need a Job. They realize that the sort of that gets you that cash is one that requires a higher education, and you need to head off to college to get that.They most likely didn't realize that they could get one preceding they met Miss Moore since they were brought Up in destitution and didn't know anyone that had an advanced education. This was one of the exercises that that Miss Moore needed the young ladies to learn and comprehend. You should be sure and accomplish something that will assist you with ge tting far in life regardless of whether no one else around you is doing it. Another exercise that Miss Moore trains the young ladies is that you ought to consistently intend to put forth a valiant effort and considerably more, yet at the same time be content with what you have and not be humiliated by It.We see that Sylvia understands that despite the fact that they are not the most extravagant individuals, they despite everything got hide dollars anyway;ay (101). Which implies that despite the fact that they don't have a lot, they despite everything have something and Just on the grounds that it is little doesn't mean it doesn't have esteem. Sylvia proposes that they utilize that cash to go to the Hassocks and purchase a great deal of food that they can share. Sylvia and Sugar race down to the Hassocks and when Sugar advances beyond her, Sylvia says, she can run on the off chance that she need to and even run faster.But against no one goanna beat me at nothing (101). Despite the fact that Sylvia doesnt express it so anyone can hear to anyone on account of h er huge self image, we realize that Miss Moore was fruitful in showing her a thing or two. In the wake of seeing the entirety of the overrated toys, she understands that no one Just has that sort of cash; rather they needed to buckle down for it. She is content with whatever she has, whatever it is, however she will at present endeavor to be better and even race to be the best so as to be a triumph and no one will beat her.This short story identifies with Grays quote on the grounds that the young ladies didn't have a clue what precisely as going on the planet outside of their neighborhood since they were honest and still youthful and didn't have any encounters in the city. After Miss Moore took them to the city, they had the experience to perceive how they identify with the outside world, and they discover that they are contrary energies. They see now on account of Miss Moore that you ought to be content with what you have, yet you despite everything ought to consistently be diligent in showing signs of improvement and accomplishing what you don't have and to not be irrita ted with it.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Mods and Rockers Essay Example

Mods and Rockers Paper What Is A Moral Panic? What Does This Tell Us About Crime And Criminality? Bolster Your Discussion With At Least Four Identified Examples Of Moral Panics Experienced In The Past. This exposition will initiate by inspecting the starting points of the term sentimental hysteria and will talk about meanings of the expression. Following from this, instances of conviction based frenzies will be thought of, to help explanation of this subject. Having distinguished occurrences of the marvel, four will be talked about in further detail. These will be the frenzies that encompassed Mods and Rockers, sedate use, video nasties and pedophilia. The ideas inside these events will give highlights, for example, how they happen, who names them in that capacity and the manner by which a conviction based frenzy gains in energy inside society. During this paper, a talk will address connects between conviction based frenzy and influences on wrongdoing and guiltiness. It might be expressed that it is practically difficult to peruse writing on the topic, without immediately going over references to the writer Stanley Cohen and his book written in 1972, named Folk Devils And Moral Panics. Cohen, a humanist, instituted the adage sentimental hysteria inside this tome, to portray the marvel that he saw of over performance by the media and government officials of freak conduct, causing an open response which was messed up with regards to the direct of the degenerates. It might be recommended that the idea has become a valuable expansion to the jargon of humanism and utilized by sociologists and criminologists to portray frequencies of comparable conduct. Cohen talks about: Societies seem, by all accounts, to be subject occasionally, to times of sentimental frenzy. We will compose a custom paper test on Mods and Rockers explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Mods and Rockers explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on Mods and Rockers explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer A condition, scene, individual or gathering of people develops to get characterized as a danger to cultural qualities and interests; its temperament is introduced in a stylised and cliché design by the broad communications once in a while the object of the frenzy is very novel and different occasions it is something which has been in presence sufficiently long, yet out of nowhere shows up in the spotlight. (Cohen, 1972. p. 9). The Penguin Dictionary Of Sociology characterizes the term Moral Panic in another illustrative way, which it could be contended, gives a superior comprehension of the term, for those without foundation information on the experience: Scenes of broad uneasiness and dread activated by clearly minor occasions. Conviction based frenzies have a long and fluctuated history from allegations of black magic in the sixteenth century to fears about medication clients or muggers in contemporary society. They as a rule include the distinguishing proof of a people fiend who is considered to be answerable for whatever good or social harm has happened In contemporary social orders, the broad communications may assume a huge job in sentimental frenzies, spreading talk and adding to a winding of uneasiness and dread. (Abercrombie, Hill and Turner. 2000. p. 231. ). In spite of the fact that this definition apparently gives a further comprehension of the term, it could be comprehended that the source is solidly dug in inside Cohens discoveries. Since Cohens study, it might be concurred that a considerable number of society villains and sentimental hysterias have been distinguished. It could be contended that significant concern has been mounted seeing issues, for example, drugs, football hooliganism, haven searchers, AIDS and homosexuality, pedophiles, erotic entertainment, adolescent pregnancy, video nasties and young people, to give some examples. Cohens persuasive examination started basically with two youth gatherings of the 1960s, the Mods and Rockers. The Mods were slick, chic and cool. The Rocker was mean, grumpy and manly (Teenage Kicks. n. d. ). Consumes makes reference to in her examination that on Easter bank occasion, 1964 in Clacton, Essex, the gatherings conflicted. The contention made various sea shore hovels be harmed, windows broken and fights to break out bringing about ninety-seven captures. During the next week, national papers caught eye of perusers with title texts, for example, Day Of Terror By Scooter Groups and Wild Ones Invade Seaside 97 Arrests. Expressions, for example, bash, revolt attack and shouting crowd were incorporated. In this manner, sensationalized by the press with distortion of realities and numbers, came a notion by society that the occasion was a more savage occurrence than the realities bolstered (Burns, 2000). Consumes states that Cohen scrutinized the media for the intensification of the circumstance, which made Mods and Rockers be viewed as a danger to peace. He named this hypothesis control culture, an episode whereby the media deliberately sensationalize an occasion and afterward call for discipline of the culprits, making people fiends among society (Burns, 2000. ). Richard Ives (n. d. ) contends that on following bank occasions, open frenzy came to be messed up with regards to the size of the issue. Youngsters were gotten some distance from the sea shores; adolescents were accounted for to the police and corrective estimates, for example, fines were established, which were lopsided to offenses submitted. These responses caused more captures, progressively pressure between the gatherings and further frequencies all through the nation (Ives, n. d. ). It might be expressed that this conviction based frenzy along these lines had an immediate effect upon wrongdoing and culpability, causing an inevitable outcome. Ives makes reference to that in the long run, the sentimental hysteria over Mods and Rockers withered away. What halted it? From the perspective of the general population and broad communications, it was to a great extent a disappearing of intrigue. Mods and Rockers as society villains were supplanted by other new and newsworthy wonder. (Ives, n. d. ). Before looking all the more carefully at three further rates of sentimental hysterias, it could be viewed as imperative to take a gander at the manner by which conviction based frenzies can be separated into five components, which characterize it: concern, threatening vibe, accord, disproportionality and instability (Goode and Ben-Yehuda 1994, p. 33-40).

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

Startup Hubs Around the World Dublin

Startup Hubs Around the World Dublin Dublin offers the entrepreneur the chance to live in a city rich with history. In a country dotted with castles and where legends of leprechauns abound, entrepreneurs may wish they had some extra luck to help their company succeed. © | David EganTo find out what Dublin has over other startup cities, we’ll explore 1) the location, 2) the tax incentives, 3) legal incentives, 4) investors, 5) local resources, 6) specialization of the area, and 7) startups to watch.LOCATIONStrategically located on the west side of Ireland, at the mouth of the River Liffey, Dublin is quickly becoming one of the hottest entrepreneur markets in the world. Conveniently located near the larger European cities, it is establishing itself as a proving ground for startups that are looking for a gateway to the European market or simply want a more relaxed setting to work in.Geographical BenefitsThe River Liffey runs straight down the middle of the city, effectively creating a diving line that marks distinct differences between the two halves. Eloquently referred to as ‘the Northside’ and ‘the Southside’, these two parts of the city are markedly different. The Northside of the city is predominantly working class, w hile the Southside is home to the middle to upper-class portions of Irish society. Along with the physical division of the city, there are stereotypical divisions that correlate to the respective sides. Entrepreneurs who are establishing a startup within Dublin must be aware of the subtle differences in the various locations around the city.Bordered by farmland to the north and a flat mountain range to the south, Dublin is surrounded by beautiful pastoral scenes that give it a picturesque edge over the massive metropolis cities it competes with. With such peaceful surroundings, the entrepreneur has an easy escape when a break is needed from the bustle of the big city. Home to approximately 2 million residents, Dublin can become congested easily, but can still manage to feel as though it is a small town.Advantages of choosing the cityAs the capital city of Ireland, one would expect the philosophical belief that ‘all roads lead to Dublin’. In fact, the reality is that Irelands’ literal roads all lead to Dublin. Transportation by car within Dublin is easily established. The roads use a tier-toll system to accommodate the growing needs of the city; all cars must be registered and electronically tagged. The electronic tagging allows for quick and easy tolls as the car goes past the station.Another form of transportation is the public transport system. In Dublin, that system contains busses and railways. The busses operate on a time-stage system move seamlessly through the ten regions that make up the city. The busiest airport in Ireland, Dublin has an international connection that can transport entrepreneurs anywhere in the world easily. Due to its location, Dublin is the startup hub closest to the United States. It offers shorter, more frequent flights to the US.Finally, one of the more recent additions to the transportation dilemma is the use of bicycles. While the idea of riding a bike everywhere is not new, the concept of renting a bicycle through a usage membership is definitely new. DublinBikes is a self-service bike rental that allows users to ride and return the bikes throughout the city. This innovative service has provided millions of bike rides over the years in a city that normally focuses on cars and trolleys, using some willpower to get exercise and sightsee at the same time can really pay off.The city is also home to a thriving culture with libraries, literature and entertainment regularly offered for residents. Nightlife can be found around the city’s center, with its focus on the younger crowd with their dress, drinks, and entertainment.Dublin is in a unique business position. The economic downturn that the global economy suffered served to push talented workers out of the workforce. In conjunction with skilled workers graduating from college, there is a deep pool of talent that can help to create some of the brightest startups in the world. This workforce ready group of people has the ability and the knowhow to chan ge their world through the establishment of startups.TAX INCENTIVESMany people mistakenly assume that Dublin’s claim to fame is their lower tax rate. While their tax rate is low, it is important to understand that more than a simple tax code is going to be needed to draw entrepreneurs to the capital city. However, for the companies that are lured by the prospect of tax advantages, the visit to Dublin will not be a disappointment.Rated by World Bank’s ‘doing business’ report as the EU location that is the easiest to start a business in, Dublin has the most business friendly tax structure in Europe.Corporate tax rates set at 12.5% one of the lowest rates in Europe. They have an extremely flexible Research and Development tax strategy, where startups are allowed to claim tax back, even if they have claimed a loss. This essentially allows startups to avoid having to pay any corporate profit taxes. Additionally, there are agreements that allow for double taxation.Tax depreciatio n on intangible assets and intellectual property is available for entrepreneurs, and the wise startup company will take advantage of it as quickly as possible.With extremely business friendly government support, the entrepreneur in Dublin is already at an advantage over startups in most of the world. The tax structure is an added bonus.Atmosphere Dublin 2014 Eoin Costello Embracing Entrepreneurship in Ireland LEGAL INCENTIVESAlong with an array of startup friendly tax codes, Ireland has created a number of legal incentives that allow the entrepreneur to quickly and easily establish a business. The streamlined process to start and license a company is handled efficiently, allowing entrepreneurs to get up and to run right away. There needs to be an improvement in the immigration process to allow entrepreneurs to secure the appropriate visas quickly, but overall the government is highly supportive of the startup market.The culture of Dublin is very welcoming to the multi-nationals wh o have made it their home. This global representation can be seen in virtually every startup within the city and is a dynamic force in the continued development of entrepreneurship in Dublin. It is not uncommon to find a German, a Jew and a Russian all in the break room at the same time and even all partners together in a startup.INVESTORSWith a business friendly environment and fantastic tax codes, it is no wonder that Dublin has managed to attract some of the biggest names in investment to set up offices in Dublin.In keeping with their business friendly policies, Dublin is making it as easy as possible for outsiders to invest in startups within the city. By allowing both investors and entrepreneurs a chance to flourish in the Irish city, the economy of Dublin is beginning to recover.The Employment and Investment Incentive (EII) was designed specifically for Irish investors. Resident taxpayers who invest in startups are eligible for additional tax credits and deductions. The Immigr ant Investor Program allows individuals with a background in business to relocate to Ireland and invest in a startup. There are a variety of options available, depending on where the investor’s comfort threshold falls.Over 35 international investors have expressed an interest in the Irish start-up marketplace and invested over the course of the last year. With such a strong backing, it is no surprise that Dublin has more seed funding available than any other EU nation.Venture capital funders are finding that they have a number of startups to choose from when selecting where to invest their money. Additionally, startups are discovering that initial funding is easy to come by, providing the startup has handled all the paperwork and legalities.Funds are being established to allow for funds to be distributed to startups who reach their second wind and need to take a leap of faith to expand. By constantly being on the lookout for upcoming startups and technologies, Dublin’s entrepren eurial market is continuing to grow.Sweet Success in Dublin, The Experience of Being an Entrepreneur LOCAL RESOURCESOne of the strongest resources that Dublin has is the size of the workforce. Skilled workers with several years’ experience working for some of the world’s biggest tech firms begin to look for opportunities to use what they’ve learned. This sub-culture of entrepreneurs has become essential in the continuation of Dublin as a global startup hub.In global rankings, Ireland is fourth for the availability of their skilled workers and 7th for how they handle their financial skills. Dublin’s entrepreneur group is one of the youngest in the nation and has some of the most highly skilled labor forces in the world.The Liffey Trust is another resource that entrepreneurs can take advantage of in Dublin. The trust, named after the river that divides the city, is a trust that has been in existence for over twenty years. Formed with the idea of helping entrepreneurs get jobs, the trust has converted a floor in an office building they own into an incubator. By prioritizing that space specifically for startups, they are encouraging entrepreneurship to flourish in the city. As a hub and a community, the building will serve as a beacon of hope to potential entrepreneurs everywhere.Another important resource that Dublin has is the English language. Entrepreneurs who are looking to set up their business in Dublin need not fret over learning a second language: they are all speaking English. This is a tremendous advantage for a city located so closely to other European hubs â€" and can help it to come out on top when doing a side by side comparison.Enterprise Island is the government of Dublin’s organization to help the bustling startup community to breathe. Through Enterprise Island (EI), startups have the opportunity to collaborate on projects, find funding, make connections and build relationship within the community. It provides information to its entrepr eneurs about housing, relocating to Ireland, etc.SPECIALIZATIONWhile the marketplace in Dublin is thriving in a multitude of fields, there does not seem to be a clear distinction of specialization. However, there are several areas that seem to be attracting more attention than the others and deserve some mention or attention.Two opposites in scope, gaming and health are big fields in the entrepreneur marketplace in Dublin.Gaming tech development ranges from the gaming protocols and software needed to play games. Gaming is a billion dollar industry; new games are being released every day that have the potential to go viral. Game developers in Dublin are creating new games, new methodologies and new technologies to increase the gaming scope, develop a new game approach or add new protocols to existing games.The other end of the specialization scope is the field of healthcare. As the global population begins to age and slow down, the demand for new and innovative technologies to improv e quality of life will continue to increase. Dublin’s startup market is determined to be on the forefront of the industry with their development of apps, programs and other resources that can be used to improve and track client health.STARTUPS TO WATCHBragBet: An interactive gaming experience, BragBet allows users to create a team, establish a team ‘pot’ of money, trash talk each other and bet on their favorite sports teams and games. A mix of social networking, gambling, and innovation, this is the new era of gambling. Users can establish an account that allows them to track and manage their bets, as well as keep in touch with the others in their team.Conker: Designed specifically for game developers, Conker is a gaming platform that helps programmers make more money in games. Specifically, this platform was designed to be run in conjunction with a freetoplay app. By using behavioral analytics, the system can use predictive technology to develop what response a player will ha ve, and then plan the game accordingly.Foodcloud: An indicator that entrepreneurship is not limited to specific age brackets, Foodcloud is an outstanding example of what happens when young developers start to design. Created as a smart phone app, Foodcloud allows local businesses and restaurants to upload details about surplus food to the app. Messages are then automatically sent out to the nearest community service group. They can accept the surplus (and go pick it up for use) or decline it (it will then be offered to the next nearest group).CloudDock: The answer to many an online storage user’s prayers, CloudDock has developed a platform that allows their accounts to all be synchronized. As a standalone system, CloudDock can work with storage programs like DropBox, Google Drive and more seamlessly.Intercom: A customer relations management tool, Intercom is designed for SaaS and web based businesses. An easy to navigate interface, it allows the user to integrate all of the data w ithin a database to be updated easily, tracks social media interactions, and monitors customer activity. With a successful funding campaign, it is expected to be a heavy weight in the growing CRM market over the next few years.BalconyTV: A throwback to the days when MTV was about music, Balcony TV is a new reality show designed to allow viewers to discover new music in the form of live concerts. The series features indie bands, musicians and other performers from around the globe and has amassed a large following already. An authentic source for rediscovering the pure joy of good music, the founders of Balcony TV are reminding the world that music used to be about, well, music.Soundwave: Another music based startup, Soundwave is an interactive app that tracks the users’ playlist preferences, detailing where and when music was listened to, how often a track is played, where it was downloaded and more. It provides an interesting look at an individual’s listening habits and also of fers music companies analytics of who is listening to particular songs.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

When I Was Searching For A Book To Review, After Several

When I was searching for a book to review, after several tries I came across this book and I was intrigued, because it was related in what career I wanted to do in the future. Since I am planning on working in a healthcare profession, I hoped this book would have benefitted me in a way that I could use these skills in real life. Working in a healthcare environment is something that I have always wanted to do. One of the skills that I hope to achieve the most is self-awareness, because working in a health profession can be stressful and can have an impact on other relationships. This book has two authors that I believe are credible because both have experience in the health care profession. One if the authors is Elaine Donnelly, who†¦show more content†¦(Pavord and Donnelly, 2). These values can benefit me going into the health profession in a way to better communicate with another colleague and or patient. For example, whenever I go with my brothers to go to the doctor, she tends to be compassionate and care for them in a way for my brothers to trust them and feel comfortable to tell them what is actually going on. A skill that I learned from reading this book is the usage of verbal and nonverbal communications. In verbal communication within a health profession is that one must be careful of the way something is being said because the other person may interpret the wrong way and can lead to something that is the opposite. With is being said, â€Å"if we start to create rules about how to communicate we are in danger of taking away the natural, warm, and genuine way that people communicate with those in their care† (Pavord and Donnelly, 40). Having the natural, warm, and genuine way we speak with people can be beneficial in a sense that one should comply with the 6 C’s that was stated. Regardless if we know the person or not we should not make a prediction of what someone is feeling or doing, but instead one should ask a simple non-objecting question in a way that is simple and bold. Within verbal and nonverbal communications lies paralanguage which means the way we speak with tone, pitch, rhythm, and timing (Pavord and Donnelly, 44). Paralanguage is important because the way I may say something in aShow MoreRelatedWho Stole My Cheese831 Words   |  4 PagesBook: Who Moved My Cheese? [pic] By: Spencer Johnson, M.D. Who Moved My Cheese is a book about the different ways people handle change in their life. The story begins as a group of friends meet after their high school reunion. The group was discussing how so many things have changed since high school, and then one of the young men in the group, began to tell a story about change that everyone could relate to. 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Consumer Privacy Bill Of Rights - 1600 Words

Abstract Identity theft is at an all time high in America. In fact, in 2012 alone victims throughout America suffered approximately $24.7 billion in both direct and in-direct losses (DiGangi, 2013). That amount of loss nearly doubled what was accumulated in other types of theft such as burglary, property theft, and auto theft. These cases of identity theft and data breaches have became so common today that most do not even pay close attention when a new case is mentioned. However, the effort to eliminate the threat before it occurs is ever important when dealing with a phantom like enemy. Thus, the demand for an establishment and improvement of security is also at an all-time high with consumers. These same citizens bear the right and†¦show more content†¦Existing Legislation In recent times, the American legislation has failed to focus on many of the important characteristics involved with consumer privacy protection. This is due in part to a great deal of pressure that has been placed on the government by civil rights groups, activists, and major industries. In fact, the United States and Turkey are two countries that have failed significantly with the establishment of consumer data protection (CDT, n.d.). Prior to the Consumer’s Privacy Bill, consumer data protection in the United States was governed by unproductive mixes of laws that were applicable to prudent economic sectors that provide protection for a small division of consumer personal data in lieu of establishing a precedence of protections through one single law (CDT, n.d.). These practices alone are inadequate for technological standards of the most recent times, where Americans rely on the internet to conduct very personal business. Section five of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC), which provides opposition to companies participating in unfair and illegal trading practice even provides a limited protection without the Consumer Privacy Bill providing stable security to consumers. However, with the establishment of the Consumer Privacy Bill of Right that single standard is established that extends protection to all data while providing grounds for regulations and laws reducing or even eliminating potential cyber attacks with enhanced

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

National Commission on Industrial Relations Free Essays

string(146) " and should also cover those in the administrative, managerial and other categories which have been excluded from the purview of the term worker\." INDUSTRIAL RELATION LABOUR LAWS Assignment Topic National commission on Industrial Relation Recommendation Submitted by J. Mary Smile MBA-Final Year NATIONAL COMMISSION ON INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS The first National   Labour Commission 1929, had promised lot in the direction of social security, social welfare, wages, social insurance, industrial relations, industrial adjudication, collective bargaining etc,. In sequel to the recommendations made in the report of the first national commission on labour series of labour enactments were passed. We will write a custom essay sample on National Commission on Industrial Relations or any similar topic only for you Order Now After the gap of almost 72 years the Second National Labour Commission has been   constituted and submitted its report in the year 2002 to the Government of India. At the outset the terms of reference to the commission are as under: 1. To suggest rationalization of existing laws relating to labour in the organised sector, 2. To suggest an umbrella legislation for ensuring a minimum level of protection to the workers in the unorganized sector. Methodology: Before penning down the report, the Commission followed the following methodology: * arranged consultation / conferences in the major cities of India to get the opinion of the Industry, public, educationalists   and so on institutions’; * circulated a questionnaire across the industry and the society in terms of the reference * surveys conducted both in organised and unorganised sector General Recommendations: 1. We recommend that the Central Government and the State Government should have a uniform policy on holidays, only 3 national holidays be gazetted – namely Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti Day, two more days may be added to be determined by each State according to its own tradition and apart from these each person must be allowed to avail of 10 restricted holidays in the year, Government holidays should be delinked from holidays under the Negotiable Instruments Act. (5. 29) 2. Flexibility in the hours of work per week and compensation for overtime. 5. 32) 3. Attempt to change the basis of tenure in all jobs (permanent as well as non-permanent) to contractual and for stipulated periods, involves a basic change in attitude and notion. If transforming the basis of all   employment is a social necessity because it has become economic necessity for industrial and commercial enterprises, then, it is equally necessary to create social acceptability for the change and the social institutions that can take care of the consequences. (5. 34 ; 35). The fundamental change of this type has to be preceded by : i)    evolution of socially accepted consensus on the new perceptional jobs ii)   the evolution of a system of constant up-gradation of employability through training in a wide spectrum of multiple skills iii) the setting up of a system of social security that includes unemployment insurance and provisions for medical facilities; and iv) the institution of a mandatory system of two contracts – one, an individual contract and two, a collective contract with workers union. . The commission recommends that government may laid down list of highly paid jobs who are presently deemed as workman category as being outside the purview of the laws relating to workman and included in the proposed law for protection of non-workmen. Another alternative is that the Govt. fix a cut off limit of remuneration which is substantially high enough, in the present context such as Rs. 25,000/- p. m. beyond which employee will not be trea ted as ordinary   â€Å"workman†. 6. 19) wage ceiling of Rs. 25000/- 5. Further the Commission recommended that it would be logically to keep all the supervisory personnel, irrespective of their wages / salary, outside the rank of worker and keep them out of the purview of labour law meant for workers. All such supervisory category of employees should be clubbed along with the category of persons who discharge managerial and administrative functions. The Commission would also recommend that such a modified definition of worker could be adopted in all the labour laws. We expect management to take care of the interest of supervisory staff as they will now be part of managerial fraternity. (6. 20)   Modified definition of worker 6. Existing set of labour laws should be broadly grouped into   four or five groups of laws pertaining to: * Industrial relations * Wages * Social security * Safety * Welfare and working conditions and so on 7. The Commission is of the view that the coverage as well as the definition of the term ‘worker’ should be the same in all Group of laws subject to the stipulation that social security benefits must be available to all employees including administrative, managerial, supervisory and other excluded from the category of workmen and others not treated as workmen or excluded from the category of workmen I. APPROACHES IN DRAFTING THE LAW ON LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Firstly, the Commission would prefer the gender neutral expression ‘worker’ instead of the currently used word ‘workman’. Secondly, the law will apply uniformly to all such establishments. Thirdly, we recognize that today the extent of unionization is low and even this low level is being eroded, and that it is time that the stand was reversed and collective negotiations encouraged. Where agreements and understanding between two parties is not possible, there, recourse to the assistance of a third party should as far as possible be through arbitration or where adjudication is the preferred mode, through Labour Courts and Labour Relations Commissions of the type be proposed later in this regard and not governmental   intervention. A settlement entered into with recognised negotiating agent must be binding on all workers. Fourthly, we consider that provisions must be made in the law for determining negotiating agents, particularly on behalf of workers. Fifthly, the law must provide for authorities to identify the negotiating agent, to adjudicate disputes and so on, and these must be provided in the shape of labour courts and labour relations Commissions at the State, Central and National levels. Sixthly, The Commission is of the view that changes in labour laws be accompanied by a well defined social secuirty package that will benefit all workers, be   they in ‘organised’ or ‘unorganised’ sector and should also cover those in the administrative, managerial and other categories which have been excluded from the purview of the term worker. You read "National Commission on Industrial Relations" in category "Papers" II. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND TRADE UNIONS 1. It is necessary to provide minimum level of protection to managerial and other (excluded) employees too against unfair dismissal or removal. This has to be through adjudication by Labour court or Labour Relations Commission or arbitration. (6. 22) 2. Central laws relating to the subject of labour relations are currently the ID Act, 1947, The TU Act, 1926, Industrial Employment (SO) Act, 1946, Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act, 1976. There are State level legislation too on the subject. We recommend that the provisions of all these laws be judiciously consolidated into a single law called † The Labour Management Relations Law† or â€Å"Law on Labour Management Relations†. (6. 26) 3. Recommend the enactment of special law for small scale units. We have come to the conclusion that the reasonable threshold limit will be 19 workers. Any establishment with workers above that number cannot be regarded as â€Å"small. (6. 28) 4. The commission has avoided the term ‘Industry’   with a view that the persons engaged in domestic service are better covered under the proposed type of umbrella legislation, particularly in regard to wages, hours of work, working conditions, safety and social security. (6. 40) 5. Modification in the terms like ‘strikes’, ‘work stoppage’ etc. nd the terms go slow and work to rule must be regarded as misconduct under Standing Orders and Provisions relating to unfair labour practice. (6. 41) 6. Commission has recommended to the withdrawal of Essential Services Maintenance Act (6. 49). 7. The Commission has suggested to identify a bargaining agent on the basis of check-off system, with 66% entitling the Uni on to be accepted as a single negotating agent and if no union has 66% support, then Unions that have the support of more than 25% should be given proportionate representation on the college. (6. 6) 8. Check-off system in an establishment employing 300 or more workers must be made compulsory for members of all registered trade unions. (6. 73) 9. Commission also recommended that recognition once granted, should be valid for a period of 4 years to be co-terminus with the period of settlement. No claim by any other Trade Union / Federation / Center for recognition should be entertain till at least 4 years have elapsed from the date of earlier recognition. (6. 76) 10. Establishment employing 20 or more workers should have Standing Order or Regulations. There is no need to delimit the issues on which Standing Orders can or need be framed. As long as two parties agree all manner of things including multi-skilling, production, job enrichment, productivity and so on can also be added. The appropriate Government may prescribe a separate Model Standing Orders for units employing less than 50 workers. The Commission has drafted a draft Model Standing Orders in this regard. (6. 77). 11. Every establishment shall establish a grievance redressal committee consisting of equal number of workers and employers representatives. The said committee be the body to which all grievance of a worker in respect of his employment will be referred for decision within a given time frame (6. 80). 12. Commission’s view on Chapter V B (Special Provisions relating to Lay-off, Retrenchment Closure in the Establishments employing not less than 100 workmen) of the ID Act :   The Commission has felt that, in the new circumstances of global competition, it may not be possible for some enterprises to continue and meet the economic consequences of competition. In such cases, one cannot compel non-viable undertakings to continue to bear the financial burden that has to be borne to keep the concern going. They should, therefore, have the option to close down. In these circumstances, the commission came to the conclusion the best and more honest equitable course will be to allow closure, provide for adequate compensation to workers and in the event of an appeal, leave it to the Labour Relations Commission to find ways of redressal – through arbitration or adjudication. 6. 87). 13. The commission has recommended for maintenance of panel of arbitrators by the LRC concern, to settle the disputes. (6. 93). 14. The matters pertaining to individual workers, be it termination of employment or transfer or any other matter be determined by recourse to the Grievence Redressal Committee, conciliation and arbitration / adjudication by the Labour Court. Accordingly, Sec. 2 a of the ID Act may be amended. 6. 96) 15. The system of legal aid to worker s and trade unions from Public Fund be worked out to ensure that workers and their organisations   are not unduly handicapped as a result of their inability to hire legal counsel. (6. 98) 16. Strike should be called only by the recognised negotiating agent and that too only after it had conducted a strike ballot among all the workers, of whom at least 51% of support the strike. (6. 101). 7 Workers participation in management – the legislative teeth should be provided. (6. 102). 18. The provisions in respect of small establishments can be in the form of a separate law name Small Enterprises (Employment Relations Act) or be included in the general law as a separate chapter to ensure that the interest of the workers are fully protected, even while lessening burden on the management and providing them with vigilance in exercising managerial functions. 6. 106) III. CONTRACT LABOUR/CASUAL TEMPORARY WORKERS The Commission has recommended that contract labour shall not be engaged f or core production /   service activities. However, for sporadic seasonal demand, the employer may engage temporary labour for core production / service activity. As mentioned by the commission that off-loading perennial non-core services like canteen, watch and ward, cleaning, etc. o other employing agencies has to take care of three aspects – (1) there have to be provisions that ensure that ensure that perennial core services are not transferred to other agencies or establishments; (2) where such services are being performed by employees on the payrolls of the enterprises, no transfer to other agencies should be done without consulting, bargaining (negotiating) agents; and (3) where the transfer of such services do not involve any employee who is currently in service of the enterprise, the management will be free to entrust the service to outside agencies. The contract labour will, however, be remunerated at the rate of a regular worker engaged in the same organisation doing work of a comparable nature or if such workers does not exist in the organisation, at the lowest salary of a worker in a comparable grade, i. e. unskilled, semi-skilled or skilled. (6. 109). The Commission would recommend that no worker should be kept continuously as a Casual or temporary worker against a permanent job for more than 2 years. (6. 110) IV. WAGES i) The Commission recommends that every employer must pay each worker his one-month’s wage, as bonus before an appropriate festival, be it Diwali or Onam or Puja or Ramzan or Christmas. Any demand for bonus in excess of this upto a maximum of 20% of the wages will be subject to negotiation. The Commission also recommend that the present system of two wage ceilings for reckoning entitlement and for calculation of bonus should be suitably enhanced to Rs. 7500/- and Rs. 3500/- for entitlement and calculat ion respectively. (6. 113). ii) There should be a national minimum wage that the Central Government may notify. This minimum must be revised from time to time. It should, in addition, have a component of dearness allowance to be declared six monthly linked to the consumer price index and the minimum wage may be revised once in five years. The Commission also recommends the abolition of the present system of notifying scheduled employments and of fixing/revising the minimum rates of wages periodically for each scheduled employment, since it feels that all workers in all employments should have the benefit of a minimum wage. 6. 114) (iii) There is no need for any wage board, statutory or otherwise, for fixing wage rates for workers in any industry. (6. 118). V. WORKING CONDITIONS, SERVICE CONDITIONS ETC The Commission recommended enactment of a general law relating to hours of work, leave and working conditions, at the work place. For ensuring safety at the work place and in different activities, one omnibus law may be enacted, providing for different rules and regulations on safety applicable to different activities. The Commission have appended a draft indicative law on hours of work and other working conditions after this chapter, and an omnibus draft indicative law on safety in the chapter on Labour Administration). Such general law on working conditions etc OTHER  RECOMMENDATIONS * Recommendations on women child labour * Recommendations on skill development * Labour Administration * Workers participation in management * Employment scenario in the country * Review of wages and wage policy How to cite National Commission on Industrial Relations, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Drinking And Driving Offences Essay Example For Students

Drinking And Driving Offences Essay My essay is on Drinking and Driving Offences. In myessay I will tell you the various kinds of drinking and drivingoffences, the penalties, and the defences you can make if you arecaught drinking and driving. Let me tell you about the different offences. There aresix offencesin drinking and driving. They are driving whileimpaired, Having care and control of a vehicle while impaired,Driving while exceeding 80 m.g., Having care and control of avehicle while exceeding 80 m.g., Refusing to give a breathsample, and refusing to submit to a roadside screen test. These are all Criminal Code Offences. Now lets talk about the penalties of drinking and driving. The sentence for refusing to give a breath sample is usuallyhigher than either of the exceeding 80 m.g. offences. Consequently it is usually easier in the long run for you to givea breath sample if asked. If, for example you are convicted ofRefusing ato give a breath sample for the first time, but wasearlier convicted of Driving while impaired, your convictionfor Refusing will count as a second conviction, not a first,and will receive the stiffer penalty for second offences. For the first offence here is the penalty and the defencesyou can make. Driving a vehicle while your ability to drive isimpaired by alcohol or drugs is one of the offences. Evidence ofyour condition can be used to convict you. This can includeevidence of your general conduct, speech, ability to walk astraight line or pick up objects. The penalty of the firstoffences is a fine of $50.00 to $2000.00 and/or imprisonment ofup to six months, and automatic suspension of licence for 3months. The second offence penalty is imprisonment for 14 daysto 1 year and automatic suspension of licence for 6 months. Thethird offence penalty is imprisonment for 3 months to 2 years (ormore) and automatic suspension of licence for six months. Thesepenalties are the same for the following offences. Having Care and Control of a Motor Vehicle while Impairedis another offence. Having care and control of a vehicle doesnot require that you be driving it. Occupying the drivers seat,even if you did not have the keys, is sufficient. Walkingtowards the car with the keys could be sufficient. Some defencesare you were not impaired, or you did not have care and controlbecause you were not in the drivers seat, did not have the keys,etc. It is not a defence that you registered below 80 m.g. onthe breathayzer test. Having care and control depends on allcircumstances. Driving While Exceeding 80 m.g. is the next offence. Driving a vehicle, having consumed alcohol in such a quantitythat the proportion of alcohol in your blood exceeds 80 miligramsof alcohol in 100 mililitres of blood. Some defences are thetest was administered improperly, or the breathalyzer machine wasnot functioning properly. Having Care and control of a Motor Vehicle whileExceeding 80 m.g. is the next offence I will talk about. Thisoffence means having care and control of a vehicle whether it isin motion or not, having consumed alcohol in such a quantity thatthe proportion of alcohol in your blood exceeds 80 miligrams ofalcohol in 100 mililitres of blood. The defences are the testwas administered improperly, or the breathalyzer machine was notfunctioning properly. To defend against breathalyzer evidenceyou must understand how the test should be administered. The proper procedure for a breathalyzer test is as follows. Warming up the machine until the thermometer registers 50 degreescentigrade. This should take at least 10 minutes. The machineshould then be turned to zero (by using the adjust zerocontrol) and a comparison ampoulel (of normal air) inserted. ifthe metre remains at zero, the test can proceed. An ampoule witha standard solution is then inserted. If the metre reads high orlow by more than .02% on two successive tests, the machine shouldnot be used. If the trial is valid, the machine should beflushed with room air and the pointer set at start. You willthen be asked to provide two breath samples, about fifteenminutes apart. Normally they will take the result of the lowestresult and use it as evidence against you. .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 , .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .postImageUrl , .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 , .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:hover , .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:visited , .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:active { border:0!important; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:active , .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745 .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud92bb4103274a47d53920e042df3e745:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Judas Betrayer EssayRefusing to Give a Breath Sample means refusing withouta reasonable excuse to give a sample or refusing without areasonable excuse to accompany a polic officer, when demanded bythe police officer. Before demanding